Most people in India have been exposed to the infection
As you will see, tuberculosis has two stages of infection. In the
first stage, a person who gets exposed to tuberculosis undergoes
some immunological reactions in the body without getting the frank
disease.This can only be detected by special skin tests, like
purified protein derivative (ppd). These people are at a 25% higher
risk of developing frank disease later in life. In America they are
treated with just one medicine for six months to reduce this risk.
It seems that India has such a big load of proper tuberculosis
diseases that all the data available is on sputum testing of
tuberculosis bacterium. These are "Open cases" and spread disease by
coughing and spitting. There is no data available on the ppd.
converters (Exposure, without getting the disease yet).
So the only ways to guess the converter status (Exposure to
tuberculosis, as mentioned in the slide) are indirect. One way is to
see its incidence in people who have been tested. Before getting an
immigration visa to the US, all Indians need a chest X ray and all
who enter the country must be proven to be clear of the Tuberculosis
disease. Yet when tested for exposure, as is needed before entering
some jobs and schools, nearly all Indians test positive. Children
born in the west are normally ppd negative, but trips to India
convert them to positive ppd's, too. The people in the upper strata
of India also test ppd positive. It is therefore reasonable to guess
that the rest of the population has the same status.
Tuberculosis is rampant in India (maximum in the world, as per the
above website of Govt. of India ). According to the Tuberculosis
Association of India, the annual cost of managing this disease in
India is more than 13000.00 crores ($3 billion).
The word “worms” has been used to denote all parasitic infections.
Common parasites include:
Faeco- Oral contaminants: Amoebiasis , intestinal worms (Ascariasis,
thread worm, pin worm and hook worm etc.),
Vector born disease: Vector are the agents that carry diseases from
one source to another.Mosquitos, flies and mice are responsible for
most vector born diseases in India.
Parasites are responsible for majority of diarrhea ( along with the
bacterial diarrhea , which is also due to faeco oral contamination).
Most of these are treated by anti amoeba or diarrhea medicines.
These are available at the pharmacies without prescription, so the
exact incidence is unknown. General impression is that most of the
Indian population has suffered with diarrhea some times in their